Volume 23, Issue 1 (Apr - May 2019)                   J Qazvin Univ Med Sci 2019, 23(1): 74-83 | Back to browse issues page


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Kheirkhah A, Gholamnia R, Kavousi A. Evaluation of the Establishment of the Emergency Management System Based on Health, Safety, and the Environment Management System and Oil and Gas Producers Standards. J Qazvin Univ Med Sci. 2019; 23 (1) :74-83
URL: http://journal.qums.ac.ir/article-1-2684-en.html
1- Workplace Health Promotion Research Center, Shahid Beheshti university of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Workplace Health Promotion Research Center, Shahid Beheshti university of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.; Department of Health, Safety and Environment, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti university of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , gholamnia@sbmu.ac.ir
3- Workplace Health Promotion Research Center, Shahid Beheshti university of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.; Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti university of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
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1. Introduction
everages to enforce commitment must always be defined for performance guarantee. Among these leverages, the law has the highest importance, followed by compliance with nationally or internationally accepted standards, and the requirements or internal policies of an industry [1-3]. Another leverage can be the attempt to obtain valid international certificates such as ISO14001 [4], and ISO 45000 [5] that have mentioned the need for the implementation of Emergency Response Plan (ERP). Another leverage for an organization is the global guidelines of the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (OGP). According to OGP, obtaining ERP is a must [6, 7]. Emergency maneuvers often take place with goals of troubleshooting the response system, increasing the ability to respond, gaining collaboration, promoting public culture, and determining the current level of organizations’ response capacity [8].
In the previous studies, the strengths and weaknesses of the organization were identified with a successful planning system for crisis management and emergencies [9, 10]. Study results suggested that a crisis management system needs reliable infrastructure [11]. In case of a malfunction of any component of the ERP, the system will not work effectively [12].
2. Materials and Methods
This research is a descriptive analytical study with a cross-sectional design conducted in 2017. The study samples were 48 employees of a large food industry company. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) [7] was used for risk assessment. For ranking the severity, probability, and risk level of failure modes, based on HSE expert’s opinion, a scale from 1-10 was designed, where 1 indicates the lowest level, and 10 the highest level. Two researcher-made questionnaires with a 5-point Likert scale were designed according to HSE-MS and OGP standards; one assessing the knowledge of the participants with 24 items and the reliability of 0.93; and other their practice with 26 items and the reliability of 0.88. To determine the crisis, a reappraisal was carried out for failure modes with high-risk priority numbers (RPNs), and the crisis matrix was defined at four critical, severe, moderate, and low levels [6]. The obtained data were analyzed in SPSS v. 20.
3. Results
The total score of the questionnaire was 4.53. The failures included design inconsistencies, poor planning of the emergency scenario, and the weakness of relief and rescue instructions. Ammonia room, CIP + CBH, chemical storage, and the furnace had a high RPN. The underlying causes of failure modes were employee’s lack of familiarity with the emergency department, employee’s inadequate knowledge of emergency numbers, employee’s insufficient familiarity with hazards, employee’s lack of knowledge of correct response after event, loud noises and nitrogen gas, employee’s lack of knowledge of relief and rescue instructions, and employees’ not participating in maneuvers.
Moreover, the underlying causes of failure modes included poor coordination and inadequate ERP education, deficiency in monitoring, delay in emergency decision-making, making wrong decisions, and the unsuitability of equipment. A total of 436 risk levels were detected; 58 of them had RPN>150; 13 had high criticality, 28 had RPN>300, and others were with RPN<150. Table 1 presents the risk levels of failure modes.

4. Conclusion
Providing an appropriate ERP can ensure effective control of the situation for each organization [13-17]. The findings showed that the guidelines should be reviewed at least annually and adapted to the needs of the organization. Changes should be based on the feedbacks of conducted maneuvers, and emergency scenarios should also be revised [18-21]. Analysis of the failure modes in the emergency management system showed that personnel awareness, resource capacity, and team coordination are among the most effective mechanisms for preventing failures [14].
In assessing the establishment level of the emergency management system, 88% of sub-items had a high compliance rate of 50%. The first priority to resolve failures was correcting the inadequate training of emergency staff whose RPN was 238.7. The second priority was the poor coordination between the members of the emergency response team, and the third one was defective planning. The distinctive features of this study are the prioritization of emergency risks, the comprehensiveness of the method, and identifying the causes of failures to avoid their recurrence. 
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

The Research Ethics Committee of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences approved this study (code: IR.SBMU.RETECH1396.199).
Funding
The present paper was extracted from the MSc thesis of the 1st author, Atefeh Kheirkhah, Workplace Health Promotion Research Center, Shahid Beheshti university of Medical Sciences. 
Authors' contributions
Study conceptualization and validation: Reza Gholamnia and Amir Kavousi; Data collection and draft preparation:  Atefeh Kheirkhah; Data analysis: Reza Gholamnia, Amir Kavousi, and Atefeh Kheirkhah; Supervision and final draft preparation: Reza Gholamnia.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Acknowledgements
Thanks and appreciation of our close cooperation with the management of the company, the management of the HSE department, in particular, Mr. Foladi, who helped us with our study.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Occupational Health Engineering

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