Volume 23, Issue 1 (Apr - May 2019)                   J Qazvin Univ Med Sci 2019, 23(1): 62-73 | Back to browse issues page


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Javanmard S S, Jazani N, Alvani S M, Hamidizade M R. Impact of Psychosocial Conditions on the Public Services Motivation of Employees of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. J Qazvin Univ Med Sci. 2019; 23 (1) :62-73
URL: http://journal.qums.ac.ir/article-1-2665-en.html
1- Department of Management, Faculty of Management, Islamic Azad University of Qazvin, Qazvin, Iran.
2- Department of Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. , nasrin_jazani@yahoo.com
3- Department of Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.
4- Department of Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
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1. Introduction
romoting employee’s motivation has always been a major concern for managers. Today’s managers should understand why their employees work and appropriately reward them [2]. In this regard, it is beneficial to investigate the factors that motivate the employees of the public sector. 
Critical psychological states form the core of Hackman and Oldham’s theory (1980). According to them, these states show how people respond to their responsibilities under the influence of occupational characteristics [15]. They divide critical psychological states into three categories: experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results. The social information processing (SIP) model was developed by Salancik and Pfeffer (1977).
In this model, psychological states based on organizational factors are: 1. Employee’s sense of membership in the organization (choice); 2.Employee’s sense of leaving the organization (revocability); 3. Employee’s sense of the organization’s visibility (publicness) [5]. This study aimed to identify and explain critical psychological states caused by occupational (Hackman and Oldham’s theory) and organizational factors (Salancik and Pfeffer theory) that affect public services motivation (PSM) of employees by considering environmental factors (including economic and geographical environment) as a moderating variable in the study organization. The research questions are: 1. What model can we use to create PSM?; 2. What are the constructs of the PSM model?; 3. What are the dimensions/components of the constructs of the PSM model?; 4. What is the effect of moderating environmental factors for the effectiveness of job-related psychological states on PSM?; 5. What is the effect of moderating environmental factors for the effectiveness of organization-related psychological states on PSM?
2. Materials and Methods
This research is a descriptive survey. The statistical population consisted of official and contract employees of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences (n=343). Of these, 180 samples were selected using stratified random sampling technique and Krejcie and Morgan table. To assess PSM in the samples, we used Kim and Vandenabeele questionnaire (2010). The occupational factors were adapted from the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) tool of Hackman and Oldham (1974), which assesses the satisfaction with public interest practice.
Besides, two researcher-made questionnaires were used for surveying organizational and environmental factors. To answer the research questions, we performed the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with partial least squares (PLS) approach in Smart PLS software. The Cronbach α coefficient for the questionnaire assessing psychological states caused by occupational factors was obtained as 0.83. Also, the α coefficient for the questionnaire assessing psychological states caused by organizational factors was calculated as 0.85. Finally, the α coefficient for the questionnaire assessing psychological states caused by environmental factors was found as 0.86.
3. Results
For evaluating goodness-of-fit (GOF) of the measurement model, we used the parameters of reliability index, content validity, convergent validity, and divergent validity. For assessing content validity, several academic experts examined and monitored the accuracy and clarity of the items. Table 1 shows the results of convergent validity, divergent validity, and coefficient of determination.

In the next step, to examine the effect of moderating variable, we entered the environmental factors into the measurement model. Since only one variable can be dependent on each step, we measured the effect of environmental factors in two steps: 1. examining their effect in moderating the relationship of PSM with psychological states caused by occupational factors; 2. examining their effect in moderating the relationship of PSM with psychological states caused by organizational factors. To prioritize the impact of each dimension of environmental factors, we introduced these dimensions separately and individually as a modifying variable to the software. Table 2 presents the results.

4. Discussion
 “Experienced meaningfulness” had the highest effect and “knowledge of the actual results” had the lowest impact on having psychological states caused by occupational factors. Therefore, employees will experience higher PSM in fulfilling their duties, if they take into account the purpose of serving and helping others [16]. “sense of the visibility” and “sense of membership in the organization” had the highest and lowest effect on having psychological states caused by organizational factors, respectively. Hence, when employees are allowed to speak clearly about the work concerns or problems in the organization, they can experience a higher level of PSM [19].
The moderating effect of environmental factors was higher regarding the relationship of PSM with psychological states caused by organizational factors than when it moderates the relationship of PSM with job-related psychological states. Therefore, the research findings indicate that timely payment of salaries, appropriate benefits, the proportionality of pay rise with the inflation rate, and the existence of suitable and stable economic condition are predictors of PSM. In addition, the increasing gap between the rich and the poor will cause distress for employees [12].
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

All ethical principles were considered in this article. The participants were informed about the purpose of the research and its implementation stages; they were also assured about the confidentiality of their information; Moreover, They were allowed to leave the study whenever they wish, and if desired, the results of the research would be available to them.
Funding
This paper was extracted from a PhD thesis of the first author, Department of  Public Managment, University of lslamic Azad University of Qazvin in governmental management approved by Islamic Azad University of Qazvin Branch (code: 21421210941078).
Authors' contributions
Study conceptualization, methodology, validation, formal analysis, resources, data curation, editing, supervision, project administration and funding acquisition: Seyed Saeede Javanmard; Methodology, validation, formal analysis, supervision, and project administration: Nasrin Jazani, Seyed Mehdi Alvani, and Mohamad Reza Hamidizadeh.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.
 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Health Care Management

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